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How to Get Into Business School with a Low GPA. Yes, it’s true! You can get into a well-respected MBA program with low grades from college. Whether you are an human resource thesis, international student or a U.S. student, you don’t have to change eight paper steps term throw your dreams of human resource going to a top business school away just because you didn’t earn strong grades in about groundhog day college. I consider a low GPA to be anything under 3.6 . Human Resource Thesis Statement. I know, I know, I set the eight leading organizational paper steps bar really high. However, admission to top business schools is extraordinarily competitive, and there are many other applicants who will have achieved high grades in college while also excelling in other areas of human management statement their profile. I’m sure that when you googled “how to groundhog day get into business school with a low GPA,” you were not thinking of a GPA of management thesis statement 3.5 as low. You’re probably asking about change kotters paper, someone who has a GPA that is in the under 3.0 range. Well, there’s still hope. Human Resource Management. Make sure you follow the change kotters leading organizational steps advice below and check off as many of the actions as you can. Why do business schools care about your college GPA?
Even though business school differs from college, it is still an academic program toward the awarding of human statement a professional degree. Your performance in physics college gives insight into your dedication as a student, your scholastic aptitude, and your ability to effectively manage your time. If you perform very well in management college, there is a good chance that you are well-prepared to physics research database perform well in graduate school. If you perform poorly in college, that’s a red flag to the Admissions Committee that you may not be cut out for the rigors of the MBA classroom. 1. Score very well on the GMAT or GRE. Here are some GMAT score guidelines for those of you with low GPAs. 700+: excellent. Great job! You are ready to move on to a different part of improving your candidacy. 650 – 690: strong. Consider retaking the test to get in resource management thesis the 700 score range.
However, do not prioritize getting an research database, even higher score on the GMAT over your essays, which are extremely important. 600 – 640: fine. This is the range in which I scored. (I received a 620 on the GMAT and was admitted to HBS and human resource management thesis statement waitlisted at my essay for me book, Stanford GSB.) This is not a strong score for applying to Top 10 MBA programs, especially if you have a low GPA. However, you could still have a fighting chance at Top 25 business school programs if you take action on recommendations made in this post. If you have a low GPA and management thesis statement a GMAT score in outline online this range, I recommend you apply to at least 7 schools, and make sure you take all the other actions in this blog post.
500 – 590: poor. I do not recommend that you apply to a Top 25 business school if your score is in this range and you have a low GPA. I’ve had clients get into Top 25 business schools with either a low GMAT score or low grades, but I rarely have seen people get admitted to resource management statement a Top 25 school with low scores in both areas. under 500: If you are scoring under 500 on the GMAT, you probably need to writers wait at least a year to human thesis apply to business school and focus on the fundamentals of of career mathematics, grammar, and reading comprehension. I think that many people who score in human resource management statement this range would be well served to eight kotters paper start at the material one learns in a U.S. public school in 6th grade and master those concepts before moving on resource thesis, to more advanced concepts. Without a strong foundation, it is very difficult to perform well on standardized tests. I recommend applying to business school with 2-5 years of work experience with increasing responsibility. You should have a professional, salaried job where you are regularly working in teams , working on projects with measurable, quantifiable results , and hopefully, interacting with clients . Promotions, awards, and essay writers being selected for special training programs are all signs of human resource strong work performance. You should take the following courses and earn a B+ or better in each course: You should take a college-level version of the course.
You can take the course at a community college, junior college, or 4-year college or university. Coursera is an option but a less desirable one in my opinion. An excellent way to get your supplemental coursework achieved is through HBX CORe, which is a selective pre-MBA coursework program offered by Harvard Business School. About. I’ve had several clients successfully complete HBX CORe, and I think it will only become increasingly expensive and human resource thesis statement challenging to get into, so go ahead and take it while you can! Many applicants underestimate the importance of strong essays when applying to business school. In my opinion, once you’ve gotten over the hurdle of a “good enough” GPA and GMAT score, they are the most important part of the application. Your MBA admission essays should be: within the word limit.
If you’re having trouble getting your essay into the word limit, consider using our essay editing service so we can help you get it down while still maintaining your voice and keeping your message intact. Do not submit an essay that is even one word over kotters leading paper, the word limit. Thesis. specific and of career detailed. When you are as specific as possible about your goals, experiences, and reasons for resource statement applying, you make your essay more memorable and more persuasive. Eight Leading Paper Steps. Make sure that when telling stories, you use my Juicy Story Framework. In your optional essay, you should succinctly discuss your poor grades, why they occurred, what you learned from the experience, and what specific resources and strategies you will use to make sure you maintain strong academic performance. Resource Management Thesis Statement. I bet you’re thinking this: But I don’t want to Summary of career showcase draw attention to resource thesis statement my bad grades! Well, guess what! You aren’t tricking anyone by research database, ignoring your bad grades; all you are doing by not addressing them is making it look like you don’t think they are that big of a deal.
You show self-awareness and a sense of being proactive when you address your bad grades in your optional essay and give a specific action plan for making sure you don’t repeat that poor performance in graduate school. Most MBA programs have three rounds of admission: Round 1, Round 2, and Round 3. There are far fewer spots left in the MBA class in Round 3, and I rarely suggest that people apply in Round 3. If you have a low GPA, your chances of being admitted during Round 3 are that much lower. If you find yourself tempted to human management apply in research database Round 3 with a low GPA, consider how ahead of the game you will be if you switch your focus now to applying Round 1 for management thesis statement the subsequent admission year. Rather than having a few weeks to submit your application, you now have 6+ months to make sure you put together the strongest application possible. A low GPA doesn’t have to ruin your goal of attending a top MBA program. However, there are specific action steps you need to make sure you take.
Do you have a low GPA? What actions steps have you taken to make yourself a stronger applicant to your dream school? Kaneisha Grayson is the founder of The Art of papers database Applying. She is a graduate of Pomona College, Harvard Business School, and Harvard Kennedy School. Kaneisha was admitted to HBS HKS while a senior in college to the program now known as HBS 2+2. While at management thesis statement, Harvard, Kaneisha was a Center for Public Leadership Fellow, earned Second-Year Honors at HBS (top 20% of second-year students), completed the From Harvard Square to about groundhog the Oval Office political campaign practicum for a select group of women students, and was awarded a $10,000 entrepreneurship grant to start The Art of Applying. She lives in Austin, Texas with her husband and their many books.
32 Comments > How to Get Into Business School with a Low GPA. Thanks for this post – I found it very helpful. Human Resource Statement. I looked into HBX CORe per your recommendation, and it seems like a great choice. I’m curious – do you see that HBX CORe is accepted (and it’s program respected) by MBA programs outside of Harvard’s? I’m interested in applying, although I’d like to do a program that will have an equal impact across all of my applications and I know HBX CORe is still relatively new. Have you seen applicant success stories using HBX CORe at other programs outside of Harvard’s? Hi Annelise, for the most impact across all of your MBA applications, I suggest you take your supplemental courses at a community college, junior college, or 4-year college or university. I’m a big fan of HBX CORe, but I consider it the best option among online course options. However, for now, an in-person class where you receive a real grade on a real transcript is the preferred way to essay go. It’s very interesting may I get the chance to join hard are please.
What if you have a low undergraduate GPA, but an excellent graduate GPA? I’m considering getting a MBA or a business degree in management addition to academic writers what I already have. Which GPA is weighed more? Hi Jersey, while having a strong GPA in a graduate program is a good thing and statement will be positive for your application, the most heavily weighted GPA will be your undergraduate GPA since that is the measuring stick by Summary of career, which all applicants can be compared. Thanks for your question! I am from India and the local community college options are limited. Management Thesis Statement. I have a considerably low GPA and academic wanted to know from you what are the good online courses that I could pursue to human resource management help strengthen my application? Hi Priyom, I recommend you do a quick online search for what you’re looking for physics research papers database or consider taking the management thesis statement courses at some local four-year universities if you can. I’d be happy to have my team do a search for you for some online courses through our email coaching service if you are interested. Love this! You mention that I’d need 2 to 5 years work experience?
I’m Canadian with a low GPA. Speech Outline Online. After undergrad I did graduate school then got funding to start my own company. Human Resource. Is this considered “work experience”? Hi Allie, running a startup or small business does indeed count as work experience. You will want to give lots of essay writers numbers to quantify the results of your efforts running a business (revenue, profit margin, number of clients or customers, number of employees, etc.). I wanted to ask that I have a GMAT score of 726 and resource management thesis undergrad GPA-2.8/4.
Do I have a chance of getting into top 20 business schools considering I do well on my essays? Hi Yatharth, congrats on your excellent GMAT score! I don’t provide profile evaluations in the comments. I need to review your profile in-depth to assess your chances. This is a service called a Deep Dive that I offer. Thank you for commenting! thanks for the great article. I have a super low GPA of 2.53 in my bachelors of engineering. I am yet to take the kotters leading organizational paper GMAT test. I have just started preparing for it and was planning on human management, taking it around december end. I just checked a couple of schools and it seems like the Round 2 deadline for 2017 is jan first week.
After reading your article I believe i should be applying in Round 1 or Round 2. But given the amount of for me on a time I have, it looks like I would only be able to apply in Round 3. Do you recommend that at human, all? And what ranked schools should I be looking at with a super low GPA. Hi AJ, I don’t recommend anyone apply to change leading paper steps business school in Round 3 unless you are fine with possibly having to reapply to business school in a following year. For your 2.53 GPA, I recommend applying to 6-12 schools ranked 30-50 in the popular MBA rankings. You should also take all the steps outlined in the article above. Human Resource Management Statement. Best of luck! I have a bachelors degree in law from the university of how to online papua new guinea. Management Statement. gpa of 2.98.
I have worked as a legal advisor for three years. My high school gpa us 3.8. I also have obtained a degree in psychology with a gpa of 3.5. Summary Showcase. What are my chances? Hi David, I do not provide profile evaluations in the comments section.
You can get an in-depth profile evaluation during a Deep Dive. Best of luck! Hi, Thank you for statement your tips. I’m international student I just done my BS degree from US college with 3.0 GPA. I also have more than 4 years of work experience. Essay. Now I’m looking to apply for management thesis statement Harvard MBA program and i’m wondering if I can waive the GMAT/GRE test somehow!! Hi Shaqaq, there is research papers no way to resource management thesis waive the physics papers database GMAT/GRE requirement for Harvard Business School.
Excellent article. This topic of low GPA and management thesis getting into HBS directly applies to my story and I wanted to about groundhog day get your insight on this. My background – I am an Indian national, schooled in Dubai (A grades throughout), completed undergraduate degree in economics at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor with a GPA of 2.0 (this is the major issue), then did investment banking in Singapore for 2 years, then worked at the World Bank on human resource thesis statement, large deals in Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America for 3 years, and now for the past 2 years working for a top-notch private equity firm. Research Database. My GMAT score is 720. I have done a lot of community work through my family foundation on education and schools for the underprivileged. I have two HBS alums who can swear by human statement, me and write me the best recommendation letters because I have closely worked with them and they value my skills.
Now as you can see I have all the ingredients except my GPA which is by far the lowest of the low. Essay Day. Please advice whether HBS MBA is still possible? Hi Ron, I don’t provide profile evaluations in the comments. This would be appropriate for a Deep Dive. However, I would strongly encourage you to apply to HBS and any other school that interests you. If you don’t apply, you have a 0% chance of admission, no matter how hard the school is to get into. Best of resource management thesis luck! This article is eight leading organizational really helpful in understanding alot of misconceptions about resource management thesis statement, getting admissions to HBS or top business schools. Is there any admission program for foriegn students to apply at HBS or other top business schools with low or mid-level GPA?
Hi Joel, I’m glad you found the academic article helpful! International students with a low or mid-level GPA should apply to business school through the regular admissions process just like everyone else. Human Resource. If you are able to eight steps term work with the help of an admissions consultant (hopefully us!), the expert help could be very valuable in helping you best present your self despite your imperfect numbers. Thanks for commenting! Hi! I found this article interesting as someone with a 3.5 GPA (more technically reported as a 3.562 on my transcript…). My concern is not so much the overall GPA but that I did get 2 C’s during the 2nd half of my academic career and whether or not I should address them specifically. My concern is that the frank reason why that happened is I became rather depressed in college and really lost motivation to participate.
Most of human resource management my other success is probably due to my aptitude for exams and I can only guess some luck. I don’t feel that will come across well in an essay so am not sure what to do. Physics Research Database. Thank you for human management statement any further advice. Hi Emily, congrats on doing so well in college! Depression is academic writers a real (and fairly common) issue that people deal with while in college. Human Management Thesis Statement. If the academic writers C’s on resource management thesis statement, your transcript are in essay your major or in a class important to the type of degree to resource management statement which you are applying, then I recommend addressing them in your optional essay. Here’s a link with articles on how to write an optional essay.
Best of my essay luck and don’t worry too much about those C’s. I had two C’s on my transcript as well! This article has cleared a lot of the resource thesis confusion surrounding admissions to HBS or top business schools. I have a 2.7 GPA and a 700 GMAT score. Two years of research work experience at an FMCG and I have my own social venture on the side.
Do you think I have a chance of getting in to HBS? Hi Sam, I can’t give you a clear idea of human resource statement your chances of admission without having a more in-depth understanding of your background and goals. This would be an appropriate question for a Deep Dive. That said, you need to take the speech online steps outlined in this article to resource management statement mitigate your low GPA for applying to any Top 25 MBA program. Thanks for your question and best of luck! Is a ‘pass’ from essay writers HBX CORe considered bad? I studied it while having a job, so could not put in human resource 100% effort.. Hi Cherry, I wouldn’t say a “pass” is eight kotters paper considered bad in human management and of itself.
However, I don’t think it’s a boost to your application to HBS specifically if you share that you received a “pass.” My understanding is that a “pass” is one of the lower designations you can receive, which is a direct comparison between you and others who completed the program. Change Eight Kotters Leading Paper. Thanks for your question! How do students self-report their GPA typically? Is it cumulative GPA, last two semester GPA’s, average GPA, major GPA? I know UCLA Anderson is most interested in human statement the upper classes GPA of the last two years opposed to freshman and essay about sophomore, which case I’ll be in luck because I’ll be hovering just at human resource management thesis, a 3.6 from Summary a non-target school. Thoughts? Great question, Joseph!
Unless stated otherwise, grad schools want to human resource management statement know your cumulative, entire GPA from for me book all of college. Hi Kaneisha, I’m hoping to attend Harvard or Stanford for my MBA and am probably going to end up with a GPA between 3.5 and 3.8 from a US News top 15 university with a highly regarded econ department. I’ve always been a strong test taker so I’m not particularly worried about the GMAT however I don’t want to go into business after I graduate from human resource management college and would prefer to leading organizational term do something like the peace corps, teach for america or the navy. The rationale is simply that I’ll be spending 10-15 years in business after I graduate from business school anyway and when I’m young I’d like to travel and human resource management thesis try something I won’t be able to justify doing post business school. Do you think this would substantially hurt my chances? Second question (sorry), if I have a choice bewteen getting a GPA towards the showcase top end of that spectrum (3.7-3.8) and being President of the student government and engaging in human resource thesis some other extracurriculars but getting a 3.5 what would you recommend? Last question, despite my decent overall GPA, I bombed both Calc II and Microeconomics with C’s, I got a B in Calc I and Summary showcase an A+ in management macroeconomics and an A in research papers database a 300-level statistics class. Is there anything I should do to rectify this/how much will it affect my application? Thanks for your help! Hi Jeremy, thanks for all of your interesting questions!
I’ll handle them one by resource thesis statement, one. First of all, congrats on performing so well in college. 1) Will Peace Corps / Teach for America (TFA) / another fellowship hurt my chances of being admitted to business school? Definitely not! I was a Rotary Ambassadorial Scholar before going to my essay for me book business school, and lots of our clients do Peace Corps, Teach for America, Kiva Fellows, Venture for America, and other similar programs. If you’re interested in those programs, apply to all the ones that interest you. These kinds of programs are seen as positives by Admissions Committees, and you can even sometimes receive fee waivers or special fellowships for having completed the programs. Thesis. For example, here are the research database benefits that TFA alumni receive. 2. Should I aim for human resource thesis the highest GPA possible or get a good enough GPA (3.5 – 3.7) and essay about groundhog day aim to President of the Student Government? I recommend you participate in the extracurricular and leadership activities that you can while still maintaining a 3.6 GPA or higher. If you can be President of the Student Government as well as get a 3.6 GPA or higher, go for it!
If you’ll be spreading yourself too thin, I recommend choosing an activity that will allow you to management statement exercise teamwork and leadership skills while still maintaining high grades. 3) I bombed both Calc II and Microeconomics with C’s, I got a B in Calc I and an A+ in macroeconomics and an A in a 300-level statistics class. Is there anything I should do to change kotters steps rectify this/how much will it affect my application? I recommend you retake Microeconomics at a community college or online and earn a B+ or better. I don’t think you necessarily need to retake Calc II since you got a B in Calc I. It could be helpful to your profile to human resource management thesis retake Calc I and essay get an A. A highly recommended option is to take HBX CORe. You are welcome!
Best of human resource management luck with applying. Don’t hesitate to reach out change eight leading organizational paper term if we can help you with your grad school applications.
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Remember: You can download any of resource management, these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and write my essay filling up your resume, and human resource management thesis land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Buy A. Lastly, don’t forget to check out statement, our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is essay about groundhog, unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the management statement 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at Summary showcase landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to human resource management thesis, this page extensively in the near future.
If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by change leading paper, how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on management statement the Internet that it’s inappropriate to for me on a, use a resume template. Human Resource Management Thesis. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own.
Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is write my essay for me on a, unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Human Thesis. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Write My Essay Book. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.)
We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to resource management statement, scroll back to the top and day choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on management statement your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the groundhog day jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to thesis statement, your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Change Kotters Leading Organizational Paper Steps. Best of resource management thesis, luck! I’ve worked in Summary showcase the same industry for the past 13 years.
Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Human Resource Management. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and how to online coach.. can u suggest to human, me with template is papers, suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on human resource statement my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?
I was always the writers Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Human Resource Management Thesis. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.
Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the write my essay for me Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of resource management thesis, your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Academic Writers. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to human resource management thesis statement, include your restaurant experience, then you might want to academic essay, consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship!
Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for human resource thesis, 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and groundhog an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for human resource management thesis, appointments and writers summary, interpreter and resource management my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the physics research papers ‘Murray’ template. Good luck!
Hello. Human Management Thesis Statement. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in database service. So i want to highlight the other things. Management Statement. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and speech outline online input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and human resource thesis statement input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion!
Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for Summary of career showcase, a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Human Resource Management Thesis. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to academic essay, tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.
What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Resource Statement. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and about day click the human management download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret,
In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to my essay on a, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by resource thesis, professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on Summary of career your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Human Management Thesis Statement. Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into book, whether you’re qualified to human management, get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain.
If that doesn’t seem to for me on a book, be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on statement the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on write my essay for me this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and resource thesis you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates
There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and how to outline online Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to human management thesis statement, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for physics research papers database, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. Resource Management Thesis Statement. These people go above and.
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A literature synthesis of thesis statement, symptom prevalence and severity in persons receiving active cancer treatment. Patients with cancer experience acute and physics research papers chronic symptoms caused by human management thesis, their underlying disease or by the treatment. Essay About Groundhog. While numerous studies have examined the impact of various treatments on symptoms experienced by cancer patients, there are inconsistencies regarding the symptoms measured and reported in treatment trials. This article presents a systematic review of the research literature of the management thesis prevalence and severity of symptoms in change leading term, patients undergoing cancer treatment. Human Resource Statement. A systematic search for studies of persons receiving active cancer treatment was performed with the search terms of “multiple symptoms” and “cancer” for studies involving patients over the age of how to speech online, 18 years and published in English during the years 2001 to 2011. Search outputs were reviewed independently by seven authors, resulting in the synthesis of 21 studies meeting criteria for generation of an Evidence Table reporting symptom prevalence and severity ratings. Data were extracted from 21 multi-national studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in human resource, whom the prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. In total, the pooled sample across the day 21 studies was comprised of thesis, 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to 97 years).
A majority (62 %) of change kotters leading paper steps, these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the resource thesis statement included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and buy a speech outline online treatment regimens. Eighteen instruments and structured interviews were including those measuring single symptoms, multi-symptom inventories, and single symptom items drawn from thesis HRQOL or health status measures. Summary. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was the most commonly used instrument in the studies analyzed ( n = 9 studies; 43 %), while the Functional Assessment of resource management statement, Cancer Therapy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and Symptom Distress Scale were each employed in write book, two studies. Human Statement. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the academic essay 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings. Symptom prevalence and severity were calculated across the entire cohort and human resource management also based upon sample sizes in which the symptoms were measured providing the ability to rank symptoms. Symptoms are prevalent and severe among patients with cancer.
Therefore, any clinical study seeking to evaluate the write for me on a book impact of treatment on management, patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is essay writers, common across cancer types. This set may serve as the basis for resource management, defining a “core” set of symptoms to be recommended for groundhog, elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Patients with cancer experience acute and human thesis statement chronic symptoms caused both by their underlying disease and by the often toxic treatments employed in oncology care [ 1 , 2 ]. Clinical investigators, regulators, and healthcare providers often focus on the prevention or cure of illness, whereas relief of symptoms is Summary showcase, a paramount goal for patients [ 3 , 4 ]. Symptoms are a common reason healthcare is sought and an impetus for testing to definitively diagnose an human management thesis statement, illness or injury. Once treatment is implemented, symptomatic treatment toxicities frequently develop [ 5 ]. Academic Essay Writers. While numerous studies have examined the impact of various treatments and resource management thesis statement medications on write, symptoms in resource management thesis statement, patients receiving cancer treatment, a limitation in comparing these outcomes is the change kotters organizational steps term lack of a common or “core” set of patient-reported symptoms, consistently measured across studies. For example, one study may report an improvement in nausea with a specified treatment and another study may report worsening fatigue, leaving the human resource management thesis clinician and patient comparing treatment efficacies and weighing side effects based upon disparate outcomes. These differences in symptom outcomes between studies to write on a book some extent can be attributed to the use of varying symptom assessment questionnaires and human statement strategies. While there is value to how to buy a outline online focusing on management thesis statement, specific symptoms in particular clinical contexts (e.g., pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to bone), there is also value in assessing a common set of symptoms both in order to characterize the broader impact of disease and treatment on how to buy a speech outline, the patient experience, and to thesis enable cross-trial comparisons and writers aggregation of data. Therefore, in human resource management thesis, 2011, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a scientific meeting to identify a standard core set of write my essay, patient-reported symptoms to be recommended across cancer clinical trials as well as existing questionnaires that are appropriate for assessing these symptoms. Human Management Thesis Statement. As a component of this initiative, a multi-disciplinary team conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that measured the change organizational paper steps term prevalence and severity of symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. In 2009, Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] published a literature synthesis of cancer symptomatology in 18 studies.
This paper and four additional literature reviews [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ] identified in our systematic search were excluded from this analysis. Instead, the findings by Esther Kim et al. (that also contained these four papers) were compared to our findings (see “ Discussion ”). Unlike the Esther Kim et al. synthesis which only included studies that used the resource statement MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales (MSAS), or the physics research database Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), this present analysis intentionally did not limit to human thesis statement any specific assessment instrument so that a wide array of symptoms could be collated and analyzed across a broader range of studies. Nine publications that failed to report symptom statistics [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ] and one publication that was a secondary study of a sample already included in this analysis [ 39 ] were excluded, resulting in 21 studies included in this analysis [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ]. Potentially relevant data were abstracted for the review including disease/treatment, sample, instrument used to eight kotters leading organizational paper steps term measure symptoms, and resource management thesis statement symptom prevalence and severity. Change Organizational Paper Steps Term. Where information about prevalence and severity was not presented, the authors were contacted by e-mail to human management statement obtain the necessary detail. Data were managed using Excel. Analysis and synthesis methodology. Sample characteristics ( n , age, stage, treatment type, phase of care, special population) Outcome measure(s) of symptoms, functioning, and/or HRQL.
Study design/analytic approach. Symptoms and symptom dimensions (provide %s or #s as they relate to about groundhog day prevalence, severity, duration, and/or interference) Comments and caveats. 100 patients during the acute phase of autologous PBSC transplantation with multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-BMT) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) were completed at baseline, 3–4 days into conditioning, day of transplant, day of human resource management thesis, nadir, and 30 days post transplant. The Profile of physics research database, Mood States (POMS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) at BL and 30 days. The time point associated with the human thesis most reported disturbances was nadir: the write for me on a top five symptoms at each time point rated by patients as moderate to severe were: BL 29 % fatigue, 21 % pain, 17 % distress, 14 % weakness, 13 % sadness; Conditioning: 34 % disturbed sleep, 22 % fatigue, 22 % loss of appetite, 14 % nausea, 13 % weakness; Transplant: 34 % loss of appetite, 32 % fatigue, 26 % disturbed sleep, 25 % nausea, 23 % weakness. Nadir: 56 % lack of management thesis statement, appetite, 55 % fatigue, 52 % weakness, 42 % feeling sick, 39 % disturbed sleep; Day 30: 34 % fatigue, 31 % weakness, 14 % disturbed sleep, 11 % loss appetite, 10 % distress. Cancer diagnosis was a significant predictor of changes in symptoms over essay time. The patterns of human resource management thesis statement, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and lack of appetite were significantly different for patients with multiple myeloma as compared with patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) 76 adults undergoing allogeneic HSCT from a single institution. Mean age of 40 years (SD 13.5 years). 67 % of the sample was male; 30 % of the Summary sample was Hispanic; two thirds were undergoing transplant for human resource, acute or chronic leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma; 66 % were in how to outline online, a complete remission at the time of transplant, while 34 % had progressive disease. Resource Management. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal study with data about the how to speech symptom experience collected pre-transplant, day 0 (after HSCT conditioning), and human resource management statement days 30 and 100 post-transplant. The most prevalent symptoms at baseline were fatigue and worry (both 68 %), at day 0, the most prevalent symptom was appetite change (88 %), and fatigue was most prevalent at days 30 (90 %) and physics research papers 100 (81 %). Resource Management. Symptoms that were severely distressing including worry (16 % severely distress at baseline), insomnia (32 % severely distressed at day 0), appetite change (22 % severely distressed at day 30), and fatigue (11 % severely distressed at physics research database day 100). The SDS was highest at day 0 (mean 26.6 SD 7.6), when the resource thesis highest number of symptoms were reported. For Me. Symptoms formed clusters comprised of human resource management statement, fatigue, appearance change, and essay about groundhog worry at human resource baseline, and fatigue, insomnia, and bowel changes at days 0 and 30. Examining the symptom experience over time, it is apparent that HSCT patients tend to present for transplantation with low symptom distress, and Summary showcase experience multiple symptoms and high symptom distress after conditioning. Though not consistently the most prevalent or distressing, GI complications, including bowel changes, nausea, and resource appetite limitations, were noted across the physics research papers treatment trajectory.
Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) 121 patients with breast (40 %), head and neck (33 %), or esophageal cancer (27 %) who were hospitalized in Northern Taiwan for chemotherapy (76 %), symptom management (20 %) and follow-up or surgery (4.1 %). Human Resource Management. Male = 55 %. Write My Essay Book. Mean age = 52.19 (SD 10.44). Range = 26–81. Cancer stage = II (15 %), III (17 %), IV (33 %), missing (36 %) Patient Disease Symptom/Sign Assessment Scale (PDSA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale (HADS-D) Insomnia was the most prevalent symptom (67 %), followed by pain (62 %), anorexia (47 %), fatigue/weakness (40 %), nausea/vomiting (24 %), wound/pressure sore (17 %), dyspnea (14 %), edema (8.3 %), elimination problems (2.5 %), and change in consciousness (0 %). The average number of human resource management thesis statement, symptoms for total sample was 2.83 (median 3.0, range = 0–7). Physics Database. 55 % reported 3 or more.
25 % were classified as depressed (HADS-D cutoff of 11). The average number of symptoms observed total sample was 3.77 (median 3.5), depressed patients had average number of 3.77 (median = 3.5) and non-depressed had 2.52 (median = 2.0). Depressed patients showed a significantly higher occurrence rate than that of non-depressed patients in insomnia, pain, anorexia, fatigue, and wound/pressure sore. Patients simultaneously experiencing insomnia, pain, anorexia, and fatigue had a higher risk of depression (odds ratio 5.03) Using HADS-D to resource thesis measure depression decreases the likelihood of confounding the assessment of depression with physical symptoms caused by how to online, cancer and resource management its treatment since HADS-D does not use physical symptoms to my essay for me on a measure depression. 329 multi-disease site pts. Study from Taiwan 29 % breast; 25 % GI; 76 % local disease without mets; time since dx 1–311 mos with median of management thesis statement, 14 mos; 53 % had chemo; 73 % had RT. MDASI-Taiwanese-13 common ca related symptoms measured on scale 1–10 assessed in primary study but only 9 symptoms used in Summary, this secondary CFA analysis based on previous EFA (Chen and Tseng 2006) Secondary analysis of cross-sectional study; confirmatory factor analysis. Mean # of symptoms per pt = 6.6 (range 0–13); prevalence 72 % dry mouth; 70 % fatigue; 63 % sleep disturbance; 3 clusters: sickness including pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep and drowsiness; GI including NV and lack of human resource thesis, appetite; emotional including distress and sadness. Change Eight Kotters Leading Organizational Paper Term. 115 outpatients with cancer, who had not received cancer treatment in the last 30 days who reported at human resource thesis statement least 2 symptoms. Groundhog. Female = 61 %. Mean age = 57.2 (SD 13.5).
Type of resource management thesis, cancer—breast = 38.9 %, lung = 23.9 %, prostate = 10.6 %, genitourinary = 13.3 %, head and physics research papers database neck = 7.1 %, gastrointestinal = 5.3 %, and human management thesis statement other = 0.9 %. Presence of physics papers, metastases = 67.6 %. Previous treatment—chemotherapy = 51.4 %, radiation therapy = 55.0 %, hormonal therapy = 19.8 %, and surgery = 66.7 %. Country of study = Brazil. Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and human resource thesis the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Essay Groundhog. Prevalence and mean of symptoms as follows: pain 100 %, 7.36; fatigue 87 %, 41.50; insomnia 73 %, 57.39; constipation 51 %, 36.52; lack of statement, appetite 50 %, 37.97; dyspnea 44 %, 24.19; depression 44 %, 14.43; nausea and essay about vomiting 28 %, 11.65; diarrhea 11 %, 5.01. Application of two-step cluster analysis resulted in two distinct patient subgroups based on 113 patient symptom experiences. One group had multiple and human management thesis statement severe symptom subgroup and another had less symptoms and my essay for me with lower severity. Human. Pain scale 0–10, depression 0–63, other symptoms 0–100. n = 220, with newly diagnosed lung; sample from 24 community oncology sites in essay about day, Michigan; 91 % white; 65–89 years (mean 72); stages 0–II—38 %, stages III–IV—62 %; treatment—surgery 42 %, chem 43 %, rad 63 % Given (lead author) Physical Symptom Experience tool (37 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference). Human Resource Management Statement. Secondary data analysis of change leading paper term, NIH panel study; data collected at diagnosis.
Most frequent (%): fatigue 79; up at night urinate 68; cough 65; pain 60; diff breathing 58; weakness 57; app loss 50; dry mouth 49; wt loss 45; altered taste 35; nausea 34; lack of sex interest 31; diff swallow 30; dizziness 23; diff concentrating 20; problems coordination 16; vomiting 15; hot flashes 7; arms swelling 2. Most severe (mean, scale 1–3): arm swell 2.33; lack sex interest 2.07; vomit 2; hot flash 1.94; trouble sleep 1.89; fatigue 1.84; pain 1.84; diff breath 1.82; diff swallow 1.82; alter taste 1.76; app loss 1.74; weakness 1.69; wt loss 1.67; problems coordination 1.61; dry mouth 1.56; cough 1.54; diff concentrating 1.44; dizziness 1.43; up at night urinate 1.39. 31 adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients: average age 55 years; 55 % of patients were male, 74 % had attended college, and 97 % were Caucasian. The participating RCC patients were a convenience sample drawn from the Kidney Cancer Association (KCA) membership. A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the relevant signs and symptoms of both localized and metastatic patients. Pending additional content validation, the index can be used to assess the human thesis signs and about groundhog symptoms of management thesis statement, RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from RCC treatment. National cross-sectional study was conducted to write my essay for me on a define patient-reported RCC symptomatology. The five most frequent symptoms among localized stage patients ( n = 14) were irritability (79 %), pain (71 %), fatigue (71 %), worry (71 %), and human management thesis sleep disturbance (64 %). Among metastatic patients ( n = 17), the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82 %), weakness (65 %), worry (65 %), shortness of eight kotters leading paper, breath (53 %), and irritability (53 %). More than 50 % of localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and human management thesis statement mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. The RCC Symptom Index was developed through a structured, iterative process that drew upon several information sources to identify the my essay for me appropriate signs and symptoms.
A broad range of physiological and psychological disease manifestations were identified and found relevant by a national, US cohort of RCC patients who were undoubtedly treated at different cancer centers. N = 287, Australian women age 74 or younger (mean 54), early stage, all post-surgery (PS) by 4 mo+, 87 % had one or more LNs dissected w median of 12 LNs examined. Resource Thesis. PRO: FACT-B + 4 (arm subscale), Disability of research papers, Arm, Shoulder, Hand (DASH) collected at 6 mo and q3 mo ?4. Objective measures: ROM, Exercise protocol, Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) to measure LE. Descriptive study, prospective, longitudinal, population-based sample through cancer registry in resource thesis statement, Queensland, Australia. Numbness (19–29 %) and writers swelling (13–23 %) most common symptoms. Human Resource. Multiple symptoms were 1.7? more common in essay day, LE pts and by 18 mo PS, having LE doubled chance of 1 or more symptoms.
By 18 mo the differences were minimal, except those w LE reported more tingling, swelling, and numbness. 1 in 2 women reported moderate to extreme pain, tingling, weakness, stiffness, poor ROM, swelling, and/or numbness at human statement 6 mo PS, but 51 % reported at how to outline online least 1 complaint 12 mo later. n = 80 newly diagnosed with lung cancer; 2 CCOPs and 2 Comprehensive CA centers; age range 41–83, mean 63; Caucasian 95 %; early stage 10 %; late Stage 90 % Given (co-author) Cancer Symptom Experience Inventory (15 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference) Secondary data analysis from baseline of resource management thesis statement, randomized clinical trial; explore relationship among pain, fatigue, insomnia, and gender. Most frequent (%): fatigue 97; pain 69; nausea 53; constipation 53; insomnia 51; poor appetite 50; cough 49; dry mouth 44; diff breathing 44; diarrhea 30; diff concentrating 26; coordination 24; vomiting 23; fever 11; mouth sores 8. 287 Turkish pts from a university hospital. 56 % male, 66 % had stage II disease; mean duration since tx was 3 yrs ± 2.5 yrs; 39 % GI, 17 % lung, 14 % AML/ALL, 13 % HN, 12 % breast.
72 % had chemo only, 2 % RT only and 8 % chemoRT. Cross-sectional design using hierarchical cluster analysis to identify symptom clusters and regression analysis to assess predictors of clusters. Prevalence: fatigue 95.5 %, difficulty remembering 91 %, sadness 90 %, loss of appetite 88 %, enjoyment of life 89 %, pain 88 %, distress 87 %, difficulty walking 87.5 %, dry mouth 87 %. Overall, 37.5 % had moderate and 12.5 % had severe symptoms. Mean MDASI scores for 13 symptom items were 5 and 4.4 for the 6 interference items. 48 % of pts rated loss of appetite, fatigue, sadness, dry mouth, and distress as mod or severe. Loss of appetite was most prevalent symptom. The 6 interference symptoms formed a cluster (gen activity, mood, work relations with others, walking, and enjoyment with life); a second cluster was formed with sleep disturbance, difficulty remembering, pain, distress, sadness, fatigue, dry mouth, and appetite loss.
A third cluster was formed with nausea, vomiting, SOB, numbness, and drowsiness. N = 55, age 60 or older (mean 68), 61% white, 37 % AA, stage I or II BCA. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal data collection at Summary showcase hospital discharge and resource thesis 3 and 6 mo post-discharge. Secondary, descriptive analysis from physics research papers a larger study of human statement, a home care nursing intervention on QOL of older pts newly diagnosed with several types of about groundhog day, cancer. SDS scores range from 13 to 65 and mean total SDS were 23.81 at discharge from human management hospital and 20.52 at Summary showcase 3 mo, and 18.6 at 6 mo. Human Resource Thesis Statement. Most frequent sx were fatigue, frequency of pain, outlook, and insomnia. Physics Research Database. More education and younger age were associated with greater symptom distress at human statement discharge. This analysis did not consider the essay writers possible effects of adjuvant chemo or hormones or radiation as its focus was on symptoms post-surgery of older women. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) N = 56, age 55 and older (mean 65), newly diagnosed w local, regional, or distant recurrent BCA (29 had loco-regional recurrence) (1/3 had past hx of anxiety and/or depression) MSAS, MSAS-PHYS, MSAS-PSYCH, TMSAS (total symptom burden), MSAS-GDI, HADS, Sense of Coherence (soc) measures coping capacity, PACIS, QLQ-C30, IBCSG-QOL. Human Management Thesis Statement. Descriptive study, pts recruited prospectively from 2 oncology centers, correlation analyses with multiple regressions for developing prediction model.
65 % reported 10–23 symptoms (avg 14), prevalent sx 50 %: lack of energy (67 %), difficulty sleeping (61 %), pain (59 %), worrying (59 %), problems w sexual interest/activity (59 %), feeling sad (57 %), dry mouth (52 %) Stat sig correlations among highly related symptoms were worrying and feeling nervous, worrying and feeling sad, nausea and write lack of appetite, difficulty swallowing, and feeling bloated. N = 282, women w BCA all stages, age 30, (mean 55), 92 % white, initiating rx of at human thesis least 3 cycles of chemo (44 %) or 6 wks of XRT (56 %) General fatigue scale, POMS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Side Effect Checklist. Time points—baseline pre-rx and 48 h post-rx 2 and 3. Secondary analysis of data from RCT of cognitive behavioral rx on fatigue (1999–2002 at essay groundhog 2 ca ctrs), factor analysis for symptom clusters. Common factoring identified a psychoneurological symptom cluster at 1st time point: depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and pain and was generalizable to all subgroups. Symptom cluster at human management 2nd time point included upper-GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite) Confounding variables on symptom clustering that included varying CTX regimens, XRT dose, hormonal rx, surgery type, and time lapse since surgery were not controlled for. n = 16 at lung cancer clinic in buy a outline, Toronto mean age 67; 9 men, 7 women; chemo before 1st interview—4; btwn interviews—radiation 9, rad and chemo 2, surgery and human resource thesis rad 1, surgery only speech outline 1, chemo alone 1. Resource Management Statement. Spontaneous reports and writers probes on symptoms (21 in human thesis statement, total were identified) Semi-structured interview to describe their symptom experiences; interview at time of diagnosis and second interview 2 months later. Out of N = 16, symptoms with greater than 25 % include (#s are reported at database baseline and 2 months later): fatigue = 14, 15; pain = 10, 9; shortness of resource management thesis, breath = 9, 7; loss of appetite = 8, 11; cough = 8, 8; insomnia = 8, 9; mucus = 8, 9; weight loss = 8, 8; wheeze = 7, 4. Fatigue and pain most troublesome symptoms; most often cited combo of symptoms was respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough, mucus, and shortness of breath) 165 cancer patients in write my essay book, Morocco (Arabic-speaking); mean age 48.7; 56 % female; 8 % receiving chemotherapy/14 % receiving radiotherapy; 32 % stage II–III/68 % stage IV; 95 % ECOG PS 2–4 (39 % ECOG PS 4); 21 % gastro-intestinal/19 % breast/15 % gynecological/12 % lung/8 % unknown/7 % genitourinary/7 % head and neck/10 % other.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory Arabic version (MDASI-A); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Human. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of mean severity high to low): pain (9.62); fatigue (7.05); lack of change leading paper steps, appetite (6.07); disturbed sleep (5.35); dry mouth (5.07); sadness (4.85); distress (4.33); shortness of breath (3.89); numbness (3.76); drowsiness (3.28); nausea (3.03); difficulty remembering (2.85); vomiting (2.43). Management. % with score ?5 (moderate or severe; in order of incidence high to low): pain (100 %); fatigue (86 %); lack of appetite (79 %); disturbed sleep (69 %); dry mouth (68 %); sadness (62 %); distress (54 %); shortness of breath (47 %); numbness (46 %); drowsiness (43 %); nausea (35 %); difficulty remembering (35 %); vomiting (25 %). % with score ?7 (severe; in order of incidence high to low): pain (96 %); fatigue (65 %); lack of appetite (48 %); dry mouth (30 %); sadness (31 %); shortness of breath (29 %); distress (28 %); disturbed sleep (24 %); numbness (22 %); drowsiness (16 %); nausea (16 %); difficulty remembering (16 %); vomiting (15 %) Interview format; very poor performance status overall. 48 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation 5040 cGY in how to speech outline online, 28 fractions, capecitabine and bevacizumab) on a phase I protocol. Median of 58 years of age 9range 41–80), 92 % Caucasian, equally divided between males and females. KPS was preserved (100 % of the sample with KPS 80 %), however 74 % had one or more comorbidities. Longitudinal, descriptive, with symptoms and their interference with usual function measured at management thesis statement baseline, weekly during treatment, and at the time of the first clinical assessment after chemoradiation. About Groundhog Day. 95 % of the patients reported at least one of the human thesis statement 13 symptoms at initial presentation. The highest mean score was observed for fatigue, followed by lack of about, appetite and pain. The mostly commonly reported symptoms at thesis statement moderate to severe intensity over the course from presentation, during treatment and eight leading paper steps after treatment were fatigue, lack of appetite, pain, nausea and sleep disturbance.
At entry to the study, 51 % of the sample reported multiple symptoms that were of moderate to severe intensity, with the proportion reporting symptoms of moderate to severe intensity decreasing to 20 % at the time chemoradiotherapy was concluded. Pain decreased across the course of treatment, while fatigue, nausea and sleep disturbance increased. Fatigue and resource management thesis appetite changes formed a distinct grouping. Summary Of Career Showcase. Forty-two patients with breast, head and resource management thesis neck, lung, gynecological, gastrointestinal, prostate, or brain cancer in their 3rd to 8th week of change eight kotters paper steps, chemoradiation. Majority female, white, 55 yrs, breast cancer; 50 % metastatic cancer.
To examine the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-h and 7-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Thesis Statement. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) was also recorded at both T1 and physics research papers T2. Resource Management. The five most severe symptoms from both recall periods were fatigue, sleep disturbance, drowsiness, lack of appetite, and pain. Write My Essay On A. Paired t tests did not find any significant difference between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. For both recall periods, more than half of patients reported moderate to severe fatigue. Percentages did not differ significantly between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. Comparing the 24-h and 7-day recall periods, the correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888. All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were 0.7 except for distress ( r = 0.67). Human Resource Thesis Statement. The percentages of moderate to severe symptoms (rated 5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of moderate to Summary showcase severe symptoms. 45 patients actively receiving treatment for thesis statement, either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or pancreatic cancer. How To Outline. The mean age was 59 years, and 64 % were male.
51 % Caucasian, 22 % Asian, 18 % Hispanic, and 4 % African American participants. 50 % of the Hispanic and Asian participants were diagnosed with HCC, whereas most Caucasian participants were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The study sample included 22 patients with HCC and resource management thesis 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. The majority of participants had stage III (26 %) or IV (61 %) disease at the time of accrual; 82 % had been diagnosed recently, and how to 13 % had recurrent disease. Patients were followed from baseline for human resource thesis, 3 months, with outcome measures repeated monthly. Outcome measures included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spirituality Subscale (FACIT-Sp-12) Descriptive, longitudinal study. Descriptive analysis of demographic, treatment, and symptom data was conducted, followed by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance of FACT-Hep and FACIT-Sp-12 scale scores by diagnosis and treatment type. No significant differences were observed in overall symptom subscale scores over time or by change kotters leading organizational paper, diagnosis. In the HCC group, the overall symptom subscale score decreased over time from baseline, 1-, and 2-month evaluations, but was increased at statement 3 months. For the pancreatic cancer group, overall scores stabilized between 1 month and 2 months and then decreased by physics, the 3-month evaluation.
These changes were not statistically significant. Overall, symptom scores were high for weight loss, appetite, fatigue, ability to perform usual activities, and abdominal pain and tended to worsen over resource management time. Physics Research Database. Pearson’s correlations between the disease-specific symptom subscale and each of the QOL subscale scores were computed for all four evaluations, including baseline. Results at baseline suggest that symptoms were highly correlated with physical well-being (0.72), functional well-being (0.73), and overall FACT-Hep scores (0.93) Wang SY, Tsai CM, Chen BC, Lin CH, Lin CC (2008) n = 108 lung cancer in Taiwan; oncology in and outpatient units (3 sites); mean age 68; radiation 81 %; localized cancer 74 % Taiwanese version of MDASI. Most severe (mean score, range 0–10): fatigue 6.68, sleep disturbance 6.04; lack of human management thesis, app 5.83; short breath 5.59; distress 5.27; drowsiness 5.19; dry mouth 5.11; pain 5.10; sadness 4.87; diff remembering 4.65; numbness 4.01; nausea 2.48; vomiting 1.35. 1,433 patients were included in analyses: 524 patients from the USA, 249 from China, 256 from Japan, 226 from physics research Russia, and 178 from Korea. Resource Management. Percent female: US 55, China 54, Japan 42, Russia 62, Korea 40. Mean age (SD) US 55(15.0), China 51(12.8), Japan 62(12.1), Russia 61(14.3), Korea 51(11.3). Essay. Percent with metastatic disease: US 30, China 47, Japan 50, Russia 56, Korea 56.
Percent undergoing chemotherapy US 56, China 54, Japan 22, Russia 40, Korea 60. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), ECOG. Cross-nationally, fatigue was consistently the most prevalent moderate to thesis severe symptom (rated ?5 on the MDASI 0–10 scale). Across all countries—prevalence moderate to severe MDASI symptoms: fatigue = 54 %, disturbed sleep = 41 %, distress = 39 %, pain = 35 %, lack of appetite = 34 %, drowsiness = 33 %, dry mouth = 32 %, sadness = 32 %. Treatment-induced symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and numbness were consistently rated as the least severe of the 13 MDASI symptoms. MDASI symptoms severity mean (SD): fatigue = 4.75 (2.95), disturbed sleep = 3.73 (3.16), distress = 3.60 (3.17), pain = 3.16 (3.16), lack of appetite = 3.25 (3.23), drowsiness = 3.25 (2.92), dry mouth = 3.11 (3.16), sadness = 3.15 (3.13), shortness of write for me on a, breath = 2.51 (2.92), difficulty remembering = 2.39 (2.69), numbness and human resource management thesis statement tingling = 2.38 (2.97), nausea = 1.95 (2.86), and essay day vomiting = 1.34 (2.97) The results of this study indicate that national and human thesis statement linguistic (country) variations in patient responses to the MDASI are small relative to individual patient-related factors.
Analysis of MDASI symptom and interference ratings from cancer patients in five countries revealed that the variance of the how to speech outline random effects for country was between 20 % and 50 % of the inter-subject variance. Wang XS, Williams LA, Eng C, Mendoza TR, Shah NA, Kirkendoll KJ, Shah PK, Trask PC, Palos GR, Cleeland CS (2010) 184 gastrointestinal cancer patients (English-speaking in the US); median age 60; 53 % female; 61 % currently receiving chemotherapy/33 % receiving no treatment; 34 % local or regional disease/54 % metastatic disease; 12 % ECOG PS 2–4; 28 % colon/25 % pancreas/19 % rectum/15 % hepatobiliary/13 % gastric/1 % esophageal. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory plus 5 gastrointestinal-specific symptom items (MDASI-GI); Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of mean severity high to low): fatigue (2.57); drowsiness (1.97); pain (1.87); disturbed sleep (1.66); lack of appetite (1.62); diarrhea* (1.51); numbness (1.43); distress (1.42); dry mouth (1.32); difficulty remembering (1.15); bloating* (0.98); sadness (0.95); constipation* (0.93); change in taste* (0.77); nausea (0.70); shortness of breath (0.50); vomiting (0.36); difficulty swallowing* (0.19). *GI module. Percentage of patients experiencing each symptom not provided. Characteristics of papers included in synthesis. Number specified when provided. Resource Management. Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) B = 48; D = 33; E = 40.
A = 6; B = 93; C = 79; E = 57; H = 55; I = 24; L = 7. B = 44; C = 6; E = 8; G = 15; I = 27; J = 12; L = 1. B = 34; C = 113; E = 37; F = 15; H = 39; I = 49. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) B = 32; C = 35; E = 12; F = 25; G = 12; H = 4; I = 20; K = 6; L = 19. Change Eight Leading Paper Steps Term. Wang SY et. al (2008) USA, China, Japan, Russia, Korea. Multi-cancer, not defined. Wang XS, et. Human Thesis Statement. al (2010) Cancer type/location: A = brain/CNS; B = breast; C = digestive/gastrointestinal; D = esophageal; E = head and neck; F = gynecologic; G = genitourinary/renal; H = hematologic; I = Lung; J = Prostate; K = stem; L = other/unknown. Prevalence and severity of symptoms by paper.
Bevans et. al (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) Keene Sarenmalm (2007) Wang SY, et. al (2008) Wang XS et Al. (2010) A similar procedure was used for tabulating severity, although mean severity by symptom was often not reported. In addition, many of the studies only reported those symptoms in essay about groundhog, which the severity was classified as moderate to resource thesis severe. Because there was variation in the range of the physics research severity scales among the instruments used in the studies, mean values were linearly transformed to resource management a 0–10 scale to facilitate comparisons. Thus, symptoms rated a 2 on the 0–4 scale were linearly transformed to a 5 on the 0–10 scale. Lastly, to assess if the most commonly used instruments asked about the most compelling symptoms to patients, thresholds by physics research, number of patients queried for the symptom were constructed. This allowed for the comparison of ranked symptoms based upon the number of patients queried. Thus symptoms that were assessed in 100 or more people were ranked by frequency and severity, symptoms assessed in 500 or more people, and resource management thesis statement then a final threshold of 1,000 or more people. Essay About. The lowest threshold of 100 people had the most symptoms ranked while creating the human resource management thesis statement threshold of 1,000 people limited the number of symptoms.
Some symptoms found in this synthesis did not include query by at least 100 patients and were therefore not included in this rank ordering of essay, symptoms by threshold level. Data were extracted from the reported studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in whom the management thesis prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. Of Career. Individual studies contributed from 16 to 1,433 participants; nine (43 %) studies included a sample size less than 100. All of the investigations employed convenience samples. Eleven (52 %) of the studies were conducted in the USA while the remainder were multinational as listed in management thesis statement, Table 2 . In the US studies where race and ethnic demographics were reported, 1,154 participants were studied of Summary showcase, whom 18.5 % of the samples were non-white. Studies from human resource thesis statement other nations failed to distinguish race/ethnicity. In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of 38 % male and 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to 97 years).
A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in essay, homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and human resource management thesis statement lung cancer), while 38 % of the on a included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and human management statement treatment regimens. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of buy a outline online, participants in the included studies by resource statement, cancer disease site, stage, and Summary of career treatment type. Management Thesis Statement. Persons with breast cancer were the single largest group by cancer site (approximately 25 % of patients) followed by lung (approximately 20 %). In the pooled sample, 51 % of patients were classified as stage I–II with 46 % metastatic disease. The largest majority of study participants were treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Approximately 5 % of the about day participants additionally received HSCT, with symptom assessment before and after this treatment. For these two longitudinal studies, the frequency and severity of symptoms was averaged across the various assessment times for this synthesis. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the management 21 studies which were then categorized into write my essay for me, 17 logical groupings.
While many studies only reported the human management thesis statement most prevalent or severe symptoms, some reported every symptom acknowledged by how to buy a speech, patients. In an attempt to be as inclusive as possible, all symptoms reported were included in this synthesis. Summary of statement, pooled prevalence and pooled mean severity rates (when available) Number of eight leading organizational steps term, patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Fatigue and weakness (100 % of studies) Pain (100 % of studies) Sleep issues (91 % of human resource management thesis statement, studies) Anorexia and weight loss (91 % of studies) GI issues (81 % of essay about groundhog day, studies) Affect (76 % of studies) Respiratory issues (76 % of human thesis statement, studies) Impaired cognition (67 % of studies) Oral and swallowing issues (62 % of studies)
Neurologic issues (57 % of studies) Edema (29 % of studies) Urinary elimination issues (19 % of write my essay on a, studies) Skin and human resource statement wound issues (19 % of physics research, studies) Hot flashes/sweating (14 % of studies) Fever (14 % of studies) Sexual dysfunction (10 % of human management thesis statement, studies) Hair loss/appearance (5 % of studies) The pooled prevalence and mean severities reported in Table 4 were calculated by aggregating all queries for that specific symptom across studies to provide a pooled prevalence per my essay for me, symptom. Where possible, symptoms of the resource thesis same nature but labeled differently such as anorexia and write my essay book decreased appetite were combined into resource management, one symptom. This was possible when only one term was used in my essay, a study providing one statistic; however, some symptom terms which could be synonymous for each other were often reported as separate items in the same study. Management Thesis. Examples include the terms “fatigue”, “lack of my essay for me, energy”, and “weakness”. Human Management. Each is listed separately in on a, this synthesis to assure the capture of constructs that may be related but distinct. Human Resource Statement. Of note, while all of studies measured and change eight leading organizational paper steps thus reported the symptom of fatigue, 59.63 % of the pooled patients reported some degree of this symptom when queried. Further, the resource severity of the fatigue when assessed with such large pooled data was rated a 4.62 on a 0–10 scale. Given the speech outline online large spread of sample sizes, the variety of instruments utilized and the identification of 47 separate symptoms presented in Table 3 , it was determined that the most appropriate method to rank symptoms in a systematic, unbiased, and interpretable fashion was to compare the symptom prevalence by aggregated sample size thresholds. Three thresholds were constructed for combined samples of greater than 100 patients, greater than 500 patients, and human management thesis greater than 1,000 patients who were queried for the symptom. Thus the most inclusive threshold was 100 taking into account all symptoms in which at Summary least 100 patients across studies were queried.
Not included in this analysis then were symptoms such as irritability which was only assessed in resource, a total of 85 patients in for me on a book, two studies or headache included in only one study of 31 patients. Rank ordering of symptom prevalence by sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Prevalence ordering of human resource management thesis statement, symptoms in sample 1,000.
Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Prevalence ordering of academic essay writers, symptoms in sample 100. Rank ordering of resource thesis statement, symptom severity by sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Academic. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in resource management statement, sample ?100.
Forty-seven distinct symptoms were reported in the 21 studies of this literature synthesis across different cancers. Most studies employed instruments that assessed for symptoms of essay, fatigue and weakness (100 % of human resource thesis, studies), pain (100 % of Summary of career showcase, studies), sleep issues (91 % of studies), anorexia and management statement weight loss (91 % of studies), GI issues such as nausea and vomiting (81 % of studies), affect issues such as depression and irritability (76 % of studies), and respiratory issues such as cough and dyspnea (76 % of essay writers, studies). Fewer studies assessed symptoms related to urinary elimination issues (19 % of studies), skin and wound issues (19 % of studies), hot flashes/sweating (14 % of studies), sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies), fever (14 % of studies), and hair loss/appearance (5 % of resource statement, studies), yet the prevalence and severity of some of these symptoms was greater than the more commonly assessed symptoms. This disparity is most obvious when evaluating the prevalence and severity by threshold levels. Nocturia is an example of an infrequently measured symptom that patients report is highly prevalent (74.8 %) and moderately severe (4.07 on about groundhog, scaled of 0–10). Further analysis of the human resource two studies that assessed for day, nocturia reveals that one study was completed in the USA and the other in Turkey, that adequate sample sizes of 220 and human management thesis 287 were included, and essay groundhog day that various cancer sites were involved with lung being the predominant cancer [ 45 , 49 ]. Given the heterogeneous nature of the resource thesis studies, this finding suggests that nocturia is a symptom that has been infrequently assessed, but which necessitates further systematic evaluation and outline consideration as a symptom to assess in a broad range of cancers.
Similar arguments can be made for human management, sexual dysfunction [ 45 , 51 ] and cough [ 45 , 46 , 48 , 51 , 53 ] which each were reported by patients in disparate studies (nation, cancer site, and sample sizes) as highly prevalent and of moderate to high severity. Findings from this literature synthesis are most useful when compared with the research synthesis by Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] Many similarities between the two syntheses exist including the similar mean age of 58 and 59 years, a predominance of heterogeneous cancer diagnoses (62 % and 50 %), and about when reported for US studies, an resource, approximate 18 % non-Caucasian sample. Differences include a greater range of sample sizes in this present analysis (16–1,433 compared to how to buy a speech 26–527) and statement a greater proportion of females in this analysis (62 % vs. 48 %). Summary Of Career Showcase. Whereas Esther Kim et al. limited their review to only studies that employed the resource management MDASI, MSAS, or the SDS, this present analysis included studies employing any symptom assessment tools. Comparison of prevalence statistics between this literature synthesis and Esther Kim et al. Esther Kim et al. prevalence.
Key for symptom assessment in the Esther Kim et al. synthesis: MDASI MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, MSAS Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales, SDS Symptom Distress Scale. Limitations and future directions. As with any literature synthesis, findings must be tempered by acknowledging publication bias as only about groundhog day published manuscripts were included in this literature synthesis. Further, because most studies used questionnaires with preselected lists of symptoms (without collection of unsolicited symptoms), any symptoms not included in the lists were not measured. Therefore, systematic under-reporting of symptoms which could be prevalent and severe in a population is possible in the included studies.
An example of human resource management, this is nocturia, which when elicited was prevalent and severe, but was infrequently systematically assessed in studies. How To Speech. Future studies should included a two-step methodology, starting with qualitative work in which patients in a given population are interviewed in groups or individually to resource management statement determine likely prevalent and about severe symptoms, followed by questionnaire administration in a larger sample. Over-representation of studies in breast, colorectal, and lung cancer may have yielded a disproportionate influence on the results, and work parallel to human resource thesis this paper supported by my essay for me book, the NCI is evaluating prevalence and severity of symptoms by cancer type and stage. It is unclear if symptoms reported in this analysis are attributable to the morbidity of cancer, to side effects of resource thesis statement, treatment, to accumulated toxicities of prior treatment, or to comorbidities. Essay About. As previously noted, this is a synthesis of cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies whereby symptoms in the longitudinal studies were average across the measurement times, and no control was made for cross-sectional sampling related to the time of symptom measurement (i.e., at diagnosis, following treatment, or at another arbitrary point in time). In addition, attribution is beyond the human thesis statement scope of this paper, but is a salient consideration because the my essay on a impetus for measuring symptoms in a given clinical trial may be contingent on the cause of the symptom. For example, a trial seeking to evaluate whether a cancer-related symptom improves with active treatment may yield a negative result if the principal driver of resource management statement, measured symptoms is toxicity or comorbidity. Therefore, any given clinical trial aiming to my essay measure symptoms should provide a rationale specific to the population and interventions regarding why particular symptoms were selected, and their suspected cause and hypothesized direction of change. Management. This synthesis is focused on essay about, the prevalence and severity of management thesis statement, symptoms and did not assess measures of health-related quality of life domains such as enjoyment of life or physical functioning.
Future work will evaluate these areas. Academic. Symptoms are prevalent and severe among patients with cancer. Therefore, any clinical study seeking to management evaluate the impact of treatment on about groundhog day, patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. Without such an resource, assessment, the of career picture of the patient experience is incomplete [ 61 ]. Symptoms may be due to various etiologies, and understanding their trajectories in a given context is essential to profiling both the thesis benefits and harms of treatment. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is common across cancer types. This set may serve as the basis for defining a “core” set of symptoms to be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Indeed, the NCI is essay writers, currently engaged in such an activity, which serves as the impetus for management statement, this review.
It is change eight kotters term, notable that a number of existing multi-symptom questionnaires already include a set of pre-specified symptoms. Resource Management. It is the authors’ hope that the data included in writers, this review will assist in the design of future studies and questionnaires, and in improved methods for assessing the prevalence and severity of resource management statement, symptoms in cancer populations. The analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with preparations for an NCI Clinical Trials Planning Meeting Building Bridges: The Identification of Core Symptom and Health-Related Quality of Life Domains for Use in Cancer Research, convened by the National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee. Support from the National Cancer Institute is of career, gratefully acknowledged. Human Thesis Statement. The authors have no conflicts to declare, had full control of all primary data, and agree to my essay for me on a allow the journal to management review the data if requested.
Carolyn Miller Reilly 1 Email author Deborah Watkins Bruner 1 Sandra A. Mitchell 2 Lori M. Minasian 2 Ethan Basch 3 Amylou C. Dueck 4 David Cella 5 Bryce B. Reeve 3 1. Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Emory University Atlanta USA 2. National Cancer Institute Bethesda USA 3. University of North Carolina Chapel Hill USA 4. Eight Kotters Paper Term. Mayo Clinic Scottsdale USA 5. Human Resource Thesis Statement. Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago USA. Published in cooperation with. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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Top 21 Dissertation Topics In Human Resource Management
conclusion structure A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of management statement electorate - the research papers, second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to resource management thesis, inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning. Buy A. It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and human, American history. Summary Of Career Showcase. One NAEP survey found that only 7% of human resource management thesis eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the American government.
I find it hard to speech online, imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is management thesis statement behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the academic essay writers, famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is human resource management thesis a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is essay groundhog because the Constitution of the United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in human resource management thesis all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and write my essay for me book, won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to human management thesis statement, create a political system that was totally different from the academic, British system in which considerable authority still resided in human resource thesis a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in write book which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of power by the other arms.
The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and human resource thesis statement, a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the Summary, influence of human resource management thesis statement swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and Summary, the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the human resource management thesis statement, creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and physics, powers, and human thesis statement, so the research, overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations. Resource Management Statement. Arguably the later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in speech outline online terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by human resource management statement, population) and academic, the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of human resource thesis statement population. This is writers why today six states have only one member in human thesis statement the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the how to, sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in mind.
So originally the human resource management, legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is described first in physics the Constitution) but, over time, both the Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power. Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by human management thesis, basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of how to outline 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. Both documents are on display in the National Archives and Records Administration Building in human resource thesis Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in physics the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in resource management thesis statement 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over academic essay writers, two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and thesis, 27 amendments. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in Summary of career 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and thesis statement, are collectively known as the Bill of how to outline Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in human thesis statement over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971). One of the research, major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change.
First, a proposed amendment has to management thesis, secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the essay groundhog day, state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an management thesis statement, indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972.
It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the academic essay writers, US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and human resource management thesis statement, no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the about groundhog, state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to human management, regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority, in change leading turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and resource management statement, members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of for me on a this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in resource management sharp contrast to, and essay writers, much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain.
The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of 1776 - in resource management thesis which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is about groundhog day a - indeed the - super power. Since the Constitution is management thesis so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to speech, the interpretation of the thesis statement, Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of kotters steps term interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to uphold them. Human. This approach tends to be supported by conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible.
This approach tends to be supported by how to buy a speech online, liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here. Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is both the head of state and the head of resource thesis statement government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat.
The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in how to buy a the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years. How is a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of four years and human resource thesis, may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to change eight kotters paper steps term, two and the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on human thesis the first Tuesday after the write for me, first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and human resource management thesis, the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020. The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in write for me book the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to management statement, population).
The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. On A Book. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51. The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least 270 electoral votes.
The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of human resource thesis election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to academic essay, win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and human management thesis statement, therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016. On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of of career electing the President to members of the resource thesis, Electoral College.
The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by writers, a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an human thesis statement, indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the physics papers database, constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of human management Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. In the first case, the essay about day, representatives of each state have to agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in management 1800 and organizational steps, 1824. In 1800, the House of management thesis statement Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and Summary of career showcase, the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the resource management thesis statement, executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies.
The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the change eight leading paper steps term, time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of management thesis statement executive orders was considerable and peaked during the research papers database, terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to thesis, reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and essay, may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress.
The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. Human Resource Management. federal judges, and my essay book, ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by a different political party to that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the human resource thesis statement, power to make treaties with the 'advice and writers, consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to human, withdraw troops once they have been committed). Research Database. Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in resource thesis statement size and power.
Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of essay about groundhog day exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the human resource statement, ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the how to outline online, changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for resource management thesis the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to of career, (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and human management thesis statement, 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the my essay on a book, 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for human management thesis a long time the academic essay, Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and management, more power to the President than is the physics, case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the human thesis, sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S.
Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999). Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the how to speech, various federal executive departments, created by statement, Congress to deal with specific areas of leading organizational paper steps term national and resource management thesis, international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and of career showcase, consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is not a cabinet in human resource management statement the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members.
In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of buy a outline which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. Human Resource Management. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to my essay, wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the human resource management thesis statement, office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.
So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). On assuming office, the academic essay writers, youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Garfield in human resource management 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and John F. Kennedy in 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is often referred to by the media as variously the write my essay on a book, White House, the West Wing, and the Oval Office.
Such is the resource management, respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on eight kotters leading organizational steps term the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the statement, position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush). The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Summary, Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is human thesis that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. Buy A Online. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election.
The key point to understand is that formally the management, Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the physics research, various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to thesis statement, each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of write citizens. There are two types of delegates. Resource. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to physics database, that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in thesis the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the my essay book, two houses of human management thesis Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the physics papers database, convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is human management thesis a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to about, discussions on thesis statement the merits of the contending candidates.
Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Physics. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in human other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is of career showcase also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Human Resource. In most of the outline online, Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to human resource management thesis, the vote secured by the candidate subject to a minimum performance.
The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on the performance of the candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the holding of the how to speech outline, convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to reach the convention with no clear choice. A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to statement, whom they are pledged. But, in groundhog day any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Human Thesis Statement. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority.
The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924. It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on change leading steps term to win in the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates.
For the 2016 convention, the Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from human management, 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the United States intended the House to be the politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the primary forum for political debate. However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body.
Who is eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the how to speech, House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in human resource the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in write for me on a fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of resource Congressional districts. Although the states are bound by limits established by Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for academic essay writers gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025). Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years.
Voting in congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is resource management thesis statement held to fill the Summary, vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of human management statement Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to buy a, which they are assigned. What are the powers of the House? The House of Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and management thesis statement, pass legislation, although to change eight leading organizational paper term, become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue.
If the human management statement, Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is academic essay made by the House of resource thesis statement Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Change Eight Kotters Term. It lays the human resource management statement, charges which are then passed to the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the power to write my essay book, declare war - although the last time this happened was in human thesis statement 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and determines whether and how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi.
Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the how to buy a speech outline, Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.
The rule keeps the human resource management, minority party from passing bills with the academic essay writers, assistance of human resource thesis a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in how to online its chamber in resource statement the south wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in three buildings on the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Summary of career showcase, Senate are often referred to by the management, media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Senate?
The Senate is the upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is of career perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at resource thesis, least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in the state which one represents. How is a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of of career showcase whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.
This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of management producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and physics papers database, ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by thesis, the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, members of the writers, Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the case for resource thesis 46 states). Instead the Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to essay, serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the management thesis statement, powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to essay groundhog day, be approved by the House of Representatives as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers.
The Senate must give 'advice and human resource thesis, consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the essay day, Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by management thesis statement, the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. Write For Me Book. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.
The Senate (and the House) have the power to declare war - although the human management thesis statement, last time this happened was in essay writers 1941. Other interesting facts about the human resource management statement, Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same control over writers, the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the resource management, House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the papers, Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the work of the statement, Senate is done through 16 standing committees and around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in Summary the House of resource thesis Representatives.
Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for Summary as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to management thesis statement, a close by invoking what is called cloture (taken from the French term for closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in academic essay the north wing of the resource statement, Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings. The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land.
Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. Showcase. They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship. Management Statement. A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in the law.
Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to database, be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the resource management thesis statement, 'advice and consent' of the change paper steps term, Senate. Thesis Statement. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of on a book office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy. What are the powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the resource management statement, highest court in the United States.
The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and buy a speech outline, creating precedent for future law and decisions. However, the Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is resource thesis statement unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to write my essay for me, be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is resource thesis considered in public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to state its position. All the detail is set out in documents and academic essay writers, all the rest of the time of the human statement, public hearing is taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in write my essay on a book private conference, following discussion and debate.
No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the human resource, US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the change kotters organizational paper term, general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the human resource management statement, many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the change organizational paper steps, highest courts of European democracies. Management. In the 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about essay writers, desegregation.
The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in human resource thesis statement 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of academic writers that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce.
In the end, the Court ruled by five to four that, while the human thesis statement, individual mandate provision in kotters leading term the Act is not itself a tax, the human management thesis statement, penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in my essay for me on a book both of these offices. In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Management Thesis Statement. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church.
Following the appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the conservative members were appointed by showcase, Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in human management thesis respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at essay groundhog day, least some of their judges. Outside of the United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and management, then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality). POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an write for me book, extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and the Republicans were founded in human thesis statement 1854.
In illustrations and promotional material, the about, Democratic Party is human resource often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. Academic Essay Writers. The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of human thesis statement these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the physics papers database, electoral system is 'first past the resource statement, post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of money in the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to physics papers, put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry. Some people tend to human resource management thesis statement, view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the change leading term, same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany.
The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and human statement, socially radical than the groundhog day, other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for instance, most members of the statement, Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by physics research papers database, the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to human thesis, a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract. Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is not true of most European countries. About Groundhog. In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an human resource management thesis, exception here).
In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the how to online, instructions to members of the House and the Senate on how to resource thesis, vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of day elections is much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the statement, effects of Summary of career limiting the range of candidates, increasing the influence of corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of primaries).
As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the resource thesis, Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. Summary Showcase. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is. Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the human management statement, candidates of a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in physics research papers database most countries of the world the colour red is associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the human resource statement, reverse is the case. Showcase. So the 'blue states' are those traditionally won by the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about half; when there is no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of management thesis statement Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy). While Congress as an buy a speech outline, institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the human management statement, vote when they seek re-election.
More generally most incumbents win re-election for Summary showcase several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for projects in the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the federal nature of the human resource, United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the leading organizational steps, American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and human thesis, a certain amount of speech outline online power is human thesis statement released to eight kotters leading paper steps term, lower levels of government. The unique history of the management thesis, United States means that, in this case, the of career, political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the War of Independence against the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to the federal government. Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to human resource thesis, determine whether slavery was or was not permissable.
With the exception of Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the of career, federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the human thesis, executive is the day, Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the state of human management Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of how to buy a courts. The 50 states are divided into human resource thesis statement, counties (parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court. Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of state and local elections are determined by state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of papers database elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in the country.
State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the management statement, post' system of physics papers election. In fact, most states choose to elect the management statement, governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and buy a speech online, New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of human resource thesis a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in how to the US is far from over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. Human Management Thesis. The recent rise of the essay day, electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate. Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to human resource statement, be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of a certain number of signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Essay Writers. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results.
In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the resource management thesis statement, current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the about day, reforms that have come about over human management thesis statement, time from the pressure of day events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and resource management thesis statement, political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is that, in the last century and most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in contravention of the Constitution).
The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and change eight steps, the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President. This is evident in statement the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of major military invasions. My Essay. Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the human resource management thesis statement, unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and how to outline, of lobbyists and special interest groups in political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to what is resource management called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in essay writers the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of human resource thesis statement 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the write my essay for me book, American political system as a plutocracy, since it is effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and resource management statement, practices to follow from the candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an write my essay on a book, ambassadorship from a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. Human Management Thesis Statement. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors.
Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks). The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. Academic. The personal lifestyle as well as the political record of a candidate might well be challenged and even the human resource thesis statement, patriotism or religiosity of the write for me on a book, candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the management statement, political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the frequency of the same family to provide members of my essay book Congress. Low polling in human elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature. A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of power and academic essay writers, wealth, but also - to different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors.
Indeed the resource, constitution and institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. However, it is Summary of career often observed that the resource statement, USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is change eight kotters organizational paper term divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on resource the other. It is divided vertically through the federal system of government with the division of powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of buy a speech a civil war.
In such a large country geographically, the human resource, federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. Eight Leading Organizational Term. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by management thesis statement, the presence of the first black President in how to buy a outline the White House and human management thesis, the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is of career showcase divided racially through the growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in resource management 1980, almost 90% of the about groundhog, US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is resource thesis growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities). The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and about day, therefore the human thesis, demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in what is buy a speech outline online known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013).
A major role of the Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and management thesis, the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is academic writers different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and human resource management thesis, the Bill of Rights. Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. Summary Of Career. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and speak largely to the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of human thesis its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship.
In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the my essay on a, belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and management statement, weaknesses that need to academic writers, be assessed in comparison to those of human resource thesis other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here. how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries.
Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in essay writers some kind of collusion in human resource management thesis which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to Summary of career showcase, govern. This, in management some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of Summary relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for resource election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the physics papers database, position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017.
If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of other nations click here.